The department of Río Negro, is located geographically to the south-west of the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay in the conjunction of the rivers; it was understood in the department of Paysandú until March 20, 1880, moment in which it was created as such by Law, taking the name of the river that it divides in diagonal, in two almost equal parts, the territory of the country.
It limits to the north with the department of Paysandú, to this one with that of Tacuarembó, on the south with those of Soriano, Flores and Durazno and on the west with the Republic Argentina being the river Uruguay the natural limit between both countries.
It has a superficial extension of 9.282 km2, that corresponds to 5,3 % of the national territory, with a population of 53.989 persons, of whom 51,4 % corresponds to men and 48,8 % to women; of the whole of the population of the department 92 % has studied primary and secondary, 5 % has reached university level, although we still have about a 1,5 % that it did not study completes the primary one.
The stripes etarias of more weigh in the department are understood between 30 to 64 years first of all and then for the stripe of between 6 to 19 years.
His geologic structure goes back to formations of the cretaceous period: gondwánicas sandstones, effusive rocks product of the basic lava that spread on the previous ones, giving place to the typical relief of hills you will tabulate wine glasses. On the cretaceous sandstones, there get ready the excellent Tertiary Layers of Brother Bentos, in some points of the department; finally the formation Pampeana belonging to the Quaternary one completes the departmental geology.
The relief of Río Negro is not spectacular but yes an attraction; it is a question of a softly wavy zone. The coasts of the department alternate the low zones with the high ones. The hills of coarse tertiary that embellish the coast and qu according to the geomorfólogos they belong to the flange of a long tectonic flaw. The high ravines that spread over the coastal zone, reach up to 15 m high and they are a product of the accumulation of layers of the thinnest dust proceeding from desert zones.
The geography blesses to the department, especially to his Capital Fray Bentos, where the Cuchilla de Haedo collapses abruptamente in the river Uruguay generating natural deep ports and to the overcoat product of which, from 1850 the traffic of cabotage has increased considerably.
The river Uruguay with the river Black they determine the fluvial and coastal characteristics of the department. The abundant fluvial currents that they drain in these two big rivers, are of torrential diet.
A characteristic that distinguishes to the department is that the river Uruguay opposite to our coasts forms a double and marked elbow, with big profusion of islands of big natural attraction, which are shared in property with the Republic Argentina.
It possesses Río Negro, a zone of notable natural characteristics where there come together humedales (Estuaries of Farrapos, the most well-known), indigenous mount, fluvial coast, islands and channels.
The zone performs particular importance for his wealth florística and faunística, for talking each other about an ecosystem that one does not find in any other part of the Uruguay.
The geographical situation, something removed from the mass of waters from the Riío de la Plata region and supported the big continental Argentine body it does of his climate a regional peculiarity: the annual average of 18,5th, with an average maxim in the most warm month (January) of 27th and a minim comes up of the coldest month (July) of 12,5th.
El régimen hídrico presenta un volumen total de precipitación de 1000mm como media anual, variando entre 100mm en enero y 1000mm en julio.
Between the strategic place that it occupies, the quality of grounds that it possesses, the fluency of his routes of transit and the facility of his international relationship, they have turned economically to the department in a privileged place. The cattle so much bovine and sheep they have big development in the department. The production cerealera, it is located to the department secondly in the production of wheat and sunflower and third in corn. The dairy production is another point in rise in the departmental economy. At present the afforestation and the cellulose industry, they place to the department first of all at level of investments at level country.