The Republic Argentina, The Federative Republic of Brazil, The Republic of Paraguay and The Oriental Republic of the Uruguay signed on March 26, 1991 the Agreement of Asunción, creating the Common Market of the South, MERCOSUR, that constitutes the most excellent international project in which these countries are.
The essential target of the Agreement of Asunción is the integration of four States across the free circulation of goods, services and productive factors, the establishment of an external tariff common and the adoption of a common trade policy, the coordination of political macroeconomic and sectorial and harmonization of legislations in the pertinent areas, to achieve the strengthening of the process of integration.
In the Presidents’ Summit of Ouro Preto, of December, 1994, an Additional Protocol was approved to the Agreement of Asunción the Protocol of Ouro Preto, by which the institutional structure of the MERCOSUR is established and he is provided of juridical international personality.
In Ouro Prieto the transitional period is finished and there were adopted the fundamental instruments of common trade policy that govern the zone of free commerce and the customs union that they characterize today to the MERCOSUR headed by the External Common Tariff.
The MERCOSUR is an element of stability in the region, since the framework of interests and relations that it generates, it deepens the ties economic as political and neutralizes the tendencies towards the fragmentation.
The integration generates a level of such interdependence, which the game of crossed interests takes progresivemente
to the actors public and deprived to moving in a political common stage, which exede the political national devices.
In effect, the advances in the construction of the common market involve necessarily the shape of a political common space in that in implied form it governs a “politics MERCOSUR “.
In this context, four States Parts from the MERCOSUR, along with Bolivia and Chile. They have constituted “Mechanism of Consultation and Political Agreement” in which common positions are agreed in matters of regional alcanze that they overcome the strictly economic and commercial thing. Also one signed the “Presidential Declaration on Democratic Commitment in the MERCOSUR“, as well as the Protocol of adherence of Bolivia and Chile to the above mentioned Declaration, instrument that translates the full validity of the democratic institutions, essential condition for the existence and development of the MERCOSUR.
In July, 1998 in a Meeting of the Council of the Common Market he subscribed
“Protocol of Ushuaia on Democratic Commitment” also as the “Political Declaration of the Mercosur, Bolivia and Chile as zone of Peace” across which six countries show that the peace constitutes an essential element for the continuity and the development of the process of regional integration.
In this aspect six governments agree, between other points, to strengthen the mechanisms of consultation and cooperation on existing topics of safety and defense between his countries and to promote his progressive joint and to realize joint efforts in the pertinent forums to advance in the consolidation of international agreements faced to achieving the target of the nuclear disarmament and not proliferation.
Institutional structure of the Mercosur
- Council of the Common Market
- Bought Common group
- Commission of Commerce of the Mercosur
- Parliament of the Mercosur
- Economic – social Advisory forum
- Secretary of the Mercosur
- Permanent court of Review of the Mercosur
- Administrative – labor court of the Mercosur
- Center Mercosur of Promotion of Constitutional state
Administrative Secretary of the Mercosur
The administrative secretary of the Mercosur was created by the Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994, as organ of operative responsible support by the service to other organs of the Mercosur.
In December, 1996, the Mercosur signs with the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay an agreement of head office, approved by the mercosur and by the government of Uruguay.
In that there is established the permanent head office of the Secretary of the Mercosur in the city of Montevideo.
Until 2002 the Secretary was redeeming basic functions of the administration, but with the evolution of integration, in the year 2002, the States Parts decided to transform ASM in Technical Secretary.
Through the Decision Nº 30/02 of the Council of the Common Market, now Secretary of the MERCOSUR received his new functions and gained the Sector of Technical Consultancy.
At present, the Secretary is divided in three sectors:
- Sector of Technical Consultancy
- Sector of Regulation and Papers
- Sector of Administration and Support
In the year 2000, the States Parts from the MERCOSUR they decided to begin a new stage in the process of regional integration, which is named
“Relaunch of the MERCOSUR” and it takes as a target the reinforcement of the Customs Union both at regional level and in the external relacionamiento.
Also one thinks about how to achieve the adoption of political district attorneys who assure the fiscal solvency and of political monetary that should guarantee the stability of prices.
Parts decided to prioritize the treatment of the following subject-matters, with the target end of deepening the way towards the shape of the Common Market of the South.
- Access to the market; rapidity of the steps on border; I encourage to the investments, to the production, to the exportation, including the Zones Francs.
– External common tariff; commercial defense and of the competition; solution of controversies.
- Incorporation of the regulation MERCOSUR
- Institutional strengthening of the MERCOSUR; external relations.
Finally on July 4, 2006, in the city of Caracas, Venezuela, the Presidents of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela signed the “Protocol of Adherence of the Republic Bolivariana of Venezuela to the MERCOSUR”.
In the occasion, the presidents repeated his conviction of which the well-being of the peoples constitutes the priority target of the governments, reaffirming his will of intesificar the regional cooperation as an instrument to guarantee to all the citizens the integral development of his countries.